There are various types of Drama, many of which will be discussed in this article. Symbol of theatre Main article: Comedy Comedies are plays which are designed to be humorous. Comedies are often filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, and strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups. Comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece , along with tragedies.
|Published (Last):||25 January 2009|
|PDF File Size:||17.49 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.7 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Themes: 20th-century theatre , Capturing and creating the modern , Theatre practitioners and genres , European influence Published: 7 Sep The Theatre of Cruelty, developed by Antonin Artaud, aimed to shock audiences through gesture, image, sound and lighting. One of the most influential theatre theorists of the 20th century and a key figure of the European avant garde, Antonin Artaud — developed the ideas behind the Theatre of Cruelty.
The Theatre of Cruelty is both a philosophy and a discipline. Artaud wanted to disrupt the relationship between audience and performer. He believed gesture and movement to be more powerful than text. Sound and lighting could also be used as tools of sensory disruption. The audience, he argued, should be placed at the centre of a piece of performance. He was interested in the use of facial expressions and the relative unimportance of the spoken word. Gesture could make these things visible on stage.
To express it is to betray it. He believed in the abolition of the auditorium and the stage to create a single playing space with no barriers between audience and performers. His work had a profound impact on a generation of European writers including Jean Genet and Samuel Beckett. His ideas bled beyond the world of the stage. Jim Morrison, lead singer of the s American band the Doors, was inspired by his writings on ritual and spectacle in performance.
The effect was an overwhelming of the senses. The text is sparse and the stage directions are surreal. Scenes of destruction abound. There is an earthquake, a giant hand — and a jet of blood. Dead bodies are left strewn across the stage.
Jelly and ice cream are splattered about with abandon, and the production ended in a disorientating looping, the same line repeated into a microphone until the words cease to have any meaning. Who was Artaud? Artaud was born in Marseilles, France, in He contracted spinal meningitis as a young child and spent long stretches in sanatoriums during his youth.
While he read widely during this time, he also developed a laudanum dependency that resulted in a lifelong dependence on opiates. In , he moved to Paris intending to pursue a career as a writer, but he became interested in the avant-garde theatre scene and began training and performing with directors, including Charles Dullin and Georges Pitoeff.
He continued to write poetry and essays during this time. He had a great interest in cinema and wrote the scenario for an early surrealist film by director Germaine Dulac, The Seashell and the Clergyman Artaud appeared in over 20 films. Soon afterwards, Artaud travelled to Mexico, where he studied and lived for a period with the Tarahumaran people, experimenting with peyote. After a strange and disastrous episode in which he travelled to Ireland and was deported in a straitjacket — he had acquired a cane that he believed holy and sought its creators, an episode ending in an altercation with the police — The Theatre and Its Double was published in Already behaving erratically and increasingly fascinated with magic and astrology, Artaud spent much of the Second World War in asylums and psychiatric hospitals.
Electroshock treatments were administered. During this period he began writing and drawing again. Because of its political content and its cacophonous quality — including grunts and moans — a panel was assembled to discuss the merits of the piece. While they found in favour of it, it was never broadcast on French radio. In , Artaud was diagnosed with cancer and he died shortly afterwards at the age of She is the co-founder of theatre website Exeunt. She is regular reviewer of books for the Observer and has written for Literary Review.
The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. See Also.
Kigaran Theatre of Cruelty, notes on Reactionary, the avant-garde movement adopted ideas that opposed these controlling factors while agitating and activating the audience [xxxi]. It was never realized, because crossing the barrier of the fictional would imply that real violence and cruelty is necessary to achieve that which is idealized, and would therefore automatically be halted by authorities one could even argue that such a dramatic revolt in the West could only and solely be executed in a — virtual— art or philosophical sphere. The objective is to create a media strategy functioning on two levels, civil and military, in order to create an appeal to the masses to join the jihad, to create a negative attitude toward those who do not join the ranks, and to convince enemy troops to abandon service or join the ranks through a monetary incentive or physical threat. These are effective techniques to build up dramatic tension, culminating in the horrible act about to take place. Violence and cruelty in Western media are fictional, but have long been subject of discussion.
ANTONIN ARTAUD THEATRE OF CRUELTY PDF
Themes: 20th-century theatre , Capturing and creating the modern , Theatre practitioners and genres , European influence Published: 7 Sep The Theatre of Cruelty, developed by Antonin Artaud, aimed to shock audiences through gesture, image, sound and lighting. One of the most influential theatre theorists of the 20th century and a key figure of the European avant garde, Antonin Artaud — developed the ideas behind the Theatre of Cruelty. The Theatre of Cruelty is both a philosophy and a discipline. Artaud wanted to disrupt the relationship between audience and performer. He believed gesture and movement to be more powerful than text. Sound and lighting could also be used as tools of sensory disruption.
Theatre of Cruelty
Theatre of Cruelty Conventions