PDF k Signaler ce document 1In his seminal book on Immigration, citizenship and national identity, Gerard Noiriel noted in that the history that analyzes the rationalization of administrative surveillance remains to be written. The subsequent chapters are dedicated to the legislation of Prussia and the Nordeutsche Bund and their efforts to liberalize the free movement of persons, to the proliferation of identification papers in the US, France, Italy and Germany before War World I, and to the growing restrictions on cross border movements in the interwar period. In a further step, Torpey recounts the project of Nazi Germany to identify every subject. This does not mean, however, as Torpey conveys p. On the theoretical level, Torpey hardly touches the topic of how administrative identification, the establishment of citizenship, and the emergence of nationalism are intertwined in the regimes which try to control the movement of persons in the modern state system.
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The Invention of the Passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, The passport deserves special attention not only because of the bureaucratic control it entails, but also because it implies establishment of citizenship, relatively unambiguous identification of individuals at a national scale, and collaboration among states in both these regards.
But it profoundly altered relations between citizens and their governments. Most broadly, Torpey traces a nineteenth century fall, a twentieth century rise, and then, after World War II, another fall in authoritative controls over freedom of movement.
Too much, perhaps: Over great stretches of the book its main stories disappear from view. Amid the detail, Torpey is actually telling three intersecting tales. The first concerns dismantling of the extensive controls that old regime local authorities, landlords, and masters commonly exercised over movements of workers, tenants, merchants, and others.
The second centers on the conflict between capitalist employers who sought free movement of landless labor and authorities both local and national who felt burdened or threatened by mobile populations.
The third shows national authorities elaborating their own systems of certification in uneasy collaboration with authorities of other nations. Viewing processes chiefly from the center and primarily at a national scale, neglecting the relevant economic and social history, and relying heavily on public debates concerning legal restrictions no doubt simplified his effort.
But it also left under-specified the struggles among interests and authorities that drove public debates on passports. Even when it comes to national political history, Torpey works selectively and unevenly. He explicitly claims pp. A more careful reading of Richard Cobb would have shown him a very different story: Municipalities all over the Parisian hinterland were using official means to retain goods and restrict shipments to Paris.
Unwary readers need to know that the country as a whole was then splitting sharply between supporters of the revolution who controlled issuance of those certificates and a growing mass of dissidents: not only nobles, clergy, and outright counter-revolutionaries, but also draft evaders, deserters, and disaffected ordinary people.
Fortunately, Torpey lays a surer hand on German and American histories. In fact, those histories subvert his Foucauldian general claims. Charles Tilly.
It explains how the concept of citizenship has been used over the past years to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and welfare. Focusing on the United States and Western Europe, it combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people. File Name: the invention of the passport. John Torpey, University of California, Irvine. The editors of and contributors to the timely collection Transformations of Warfare in the Cont John C. In , he was President of the Eastern Sociological Society.
The invention of the passport
The nationalization of immigration restriction in the United States The Italian passport law of The spread of identification documents for foreigners in France The resurrection of passport controls in late nineteenthcentury Germany The First World War and the temporary reimposition of passport controls Temporary passport controls become permanent The United States and the end of the Laissez faire era in migration The debate over passport Controls of early 32 A detailed examination of the new passport law 36 Passports and freedom of movement under the Convention 44 Passport Concerns of the Directory 51 Sweeping Out Augeass Stable The NineteenthCentury Trend Toward Freedom of Movement 57 From the Emancipation of the peasantry to the end of the Napoleonic era 58 Prussian backwardness? Passports and Constraints on Movement from the Interwar to the Postwar Era The emergence of the international refugee regime in the early interwar period Passports identity papers and the Nazi persecution of the Jews Passport controls and regional intergration in postwar Europe