In the Tanakh Hebrew Bible [ edit ] The Tanakh reports that angels appeared to each of the Patriarchs , to Moses , Joshua , and numerous other figures. God promises to send one to Moses in Exodus , and sends one to stand in the way of Balaam in Numbers The Book of Psalms says "For His angels will charge for you, to protect you in all your ways" Psalms Almost every appearance of this figure in the Tanakh complies to the following pattern: The narration introduces the angel of the LORD; He behaves as if he were a deity, e.
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It is a collection of ancient writings including the books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament, used by the Christian church. It can also be the Hebrew Scriptures, the sacred book of Judaism, or a book or collection of writings constituting the sacred text of a religion [Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin biblia, from Greek, pl.
By the fifth century A. Later the word passed into the western church, for its use in the Latin, thus "The Books" became "The Book.
Testament was a translation of the Hebrew word berith "a covenant" to render the Greek word diatheke Latin testamentum first occurring in Tertullian A.
All used in Judea as the three main lines of transmission by which the OT has come down to us are: Masoretic Hebrew text of the eighth and ninth century A. The Masoretic text may have been derived from a Babylonian revision. Samaritan Pentateuch, which may have been derived from a Palestinian text. Hebrew has a close affinity to Ugaritic, Phoenician, Moabitic, and the Canaanite dialects. Click here to see Ugaritic Writing and Alphabet information. This proved to be archaic Hebrew, dated about B.
This very early dialect of Canaanite, or Ugaritic cuneiform alphabet had about twenty-nine or thirty characters, all of them consonantal except that three of them indicated the type of vowel occurring after aleph, whether a, i [or, e], or u.
As early as the sixteenth century B. This is the cursive script, used in Old Hebrew and for the original writing of the OT books. The ancient Israelites who lived in Palestine Canaan during Biblical times spoke and wrote in Hebrew before the Babylonian captivity. The Bible itself is the greatest product of Hebrew literature. The biblical date of Deborah is lowered a full century by Albright to B. And Isaac went unto Abimelech king of the Philistines unto Gerar. Siloam Inscription in old cursive Hebrew script Canaanite with prong-like characters , c.
Gezer Calendar from B. It is one of the oldest known pieces of Hebrew writing. The capture of Gezer is mentioned in the stele of Pharaoh Merneptah about B.
Old Lachish mound which yielded a bowl, a jar, and a dagger containing brief inscriptions in alphabetic script similar to that found in Sinai and dating probably between and B. One source dates it at B. Moabite Stone, c. Since Moab and Jacob were both descendants of Terah it is not strange that their tongues should resemble one another.
During the seventy years the Jews were in captivity in Babylon B. The ancient Hebrew text consisted only of consonants, since the Hebrew alphabet had no written vowels. The vowel signs and accentual marks were invented by the Jewish Masoretic scholars in the sixth century A.
Esdras did not return till B. Most of the OT is written in Hebrew, but after the return from exile, Hebrew gave way to Aramaic square Aramaic script , which can be seen in the OT Ezra ; "written in the Syrian tongue"; Dan.
However, since the Samaritan Pentateuch is in the old cursive script, the square letters must not have been used until after the schism between Judea and Samaria about B.
A letter from Arsham the Persian satrap of Egypt c. Modern scholars date the Samaritan Pentateuch at or B. There is a Palestinian Talmud and a later, more authoritative, much longer Babylonian Talmud. Each consisted of Mishnah Hebrew word targum meaning translation or interpretations, oral tradition, whose origin is obscure and Gemara commentary on oral rabbinical decisions.
The Targums are any of several Aramaic translations or paraphrasings of the Old Testament. Besides the Targum of Johnathan on the Prophets, there are three on the Pentateuch, all of which were put into written form from about the first to the ninth century A. Ethiopic in the fourth or fifth century.
Gothic prepared by Ulfilas about Armenian for Christians of eastern Asia Minor about Georgian in the fifth or sixth century.
Slavonic in the ninth century is preserved in the oldest manuscript of the whole Bible in existence today. It is dated and is known as Codex Gennadius, now in Moscow. Arabic for the Arabic conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries, begun by Saadya in the tenth century. Today, Hebrew still serves as the language of Judaism, the religion of the Jews, and is also the official language of Israel, although some write in Yiddish.
The Septuagint Greek Translation. The first and most important of a number of translations of the Hebrew OT into Greek, the LXX, is also of much value in interpretative study of biblical Hebrew. The conquest of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC made Greek the most widely spoken language in the Mediterranean area. It seemed a natural step to translate the Scriptures into Greek for the benefit of non-Hebrew-speaking Jews. The story of the origin of the Septuagint is told in the Letter of Aristeas, a psuedepigraphical book written in the second half of the second century B.
In seventy-two days they translated one section each from this scroll. So this version was the oldest Greek translation of the Old Testament Pentateuch only made and was called the Septuagint, the translation of the seventy, abbreviated LXX, completed about B. The rest of the OT was done at a later date, possibly Scholars do not agree on the origins of the name Septuagint, which stems from the Latin meaning "seventy".
Some believe the translation was named after the number of scholars appointed, while others believe it was named for the seventy elders of Israel mentioned in Exodus as companions to Moses. Another tradition states that it was undertaken by a group of Essene scholars, who were members of a mystic and ascetic Jewish sect that existed in ancient Palestine from the second century B.
The Essene initiates however, were reluctant to reveal the secret doctrine of the Hebrew faith to non initiates, and therefore disguised, with the use of similes and symbolic imagery, the mysteries given by Moses. The translation was gradually supplemented with translations of the remainder of the Hebrew scriptures as well as some other works that are now in the Apocrypha.
The translation posed problems later on because it was based on an earlier and different Hebrew text from the standard or Masoretic text of the rabbis, which was not finalized until the second century A. The seventy rabbis who formed the Supreme Council of the Priesthood in Jerusalem, known as the Sanhedrin, were the highest judicial and ecclesiastical council of the ancient Jewish nation. Unaware of the abstruse quality of the Hebrew text, they accepted this misleading translation as accurate and stamped their approval on it.
Remember that they were represented by the 23 members from the political Sadducees and also the 70 members of the religious Pharisees. Besides the twenty-four books contained in the Hebrew Bible, seventeen other books or portions of books were included. Fourteen of these seventeen, plus II Esdras, now comprise the Apocrypha. Roman Catholics accept twelve of these books or portions as of equal importance with the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The LXX had great authority among the non-Palestinian Jews, because of it being the first substantial work ever translated into another language. After A. Other Greek versions: Aquila, a proselyte Jew, made a very literal translation that became the official Greek version for the Jews.
Theodotion, a Christian of Pontus, made a translation between and , that seemed to be partially a revision of the Septuagint, into idiomatic Greek. Symmachus translated in the Hebrew into good smooth Greek, but was just paraphrased. The Hexpla was a translation and six column arrangement by Origen in Caesarea about A. It became the authoritative Greek OT for some churches. Codex Sinaiticus, Aleph. Codex Alexandrinus, "A," dated in the fifth century A.
Codex Ephraemi, "C," dated to the fifth century A. The Vulgate Latin Translation. As Christianity spread to other countries translations were required. Old Latin versions African, European and Italian probably originated among the Latin-speaking Jews of Carthage and were adopted by the Christians, as the ones that circulated in Carthage by A.
Saint Jerome, a hermit, originally Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus, lived ? By the end of the fourth century A. The word vulgate means to make known to all, or in Latin it means common or popular. They became known as the Holy Scriptures and is accepted without question by the large majority of the Christian world for a thousand years. The traditional English translation of the Vulgate is called the Douay Bible, and was until recently the only authorized Roman Catholic Bible in English. Chapter divisions came much later, appearing first in the Vulgate, A.
Others claim that these were made by Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, who died in Verses were marked in the Vulgate as early as Others claim that in a printer in Paris, Robert Stephens also brought out an edition of the Vulgate that was the first entire Bible with our present chapters and verses. Jewish Mysticism Arose from the Spanish Inquisition.
Beginning with Constantine the Spanish Inquisition was an effort by the Roman Catholic Church to seek out and punish heretics anyone or those who opposed the church teachings. Although it occurred throughout Europe this was one of the best known.
During the Middle Ages from the court of Pope Gregory IX, the Jews suffered persecution, since its results tortured and burned anyone who refused to change their beliefs. In , for example, they were expelled from Spain, at which point the Inquisition was turned against the Protestants.
Some Hebrew authors tried to understand such Jewish suffering by examining the relationship between God and human beings. Much of the literature of these writers formed part of the Jewish mystical tradition called the Cabala. The Zohar Book of Splendor , written chiefly in Aramic with some Hebrew sections, is the greatest work of Cabalist literature, believed to have been written by Moses de Leon of Spain in Believe it or not this persecution may have led to what is presently called the New Age Movement.
I find it amusing that the Gentile authorities treatment of the Jews and the spread of Jewish mysticism may have created the poison for the world to choke on in modern times, even till the "end of the time of the Gentiles. Palestinian Jews recognize the same 39 OT books.
Jewish Concepts: Angels & Angelology
A few of these names recur in Enoch, viii. When He measured with the standard of measure, He made colours to provide light. The Raaya Meheimnaa section of related teachings spread throughout the Zohar, discusses fourth and fifth parts of the human soul, the chayyah and yehidah first mentioned in the Midrash Rabbah. Angels are powerful and dreadful, endowed with wisdom and with knowledge of all earthly events, correct in their judgment, holy, but not infallible; for they strive with each other, and God has to make peace between them. Rectification Above corresponds to the reorganization of the independent sephirot into relating Partzufim Divine Personaspreviously referred to obliquely in the Zohar.
Gods Army - "Hebrew Cabalist Writings"?
Virisar In the fifth he sees the watchers, four orders, in grief over their fallen fellow angels, but still singing, at his monition, and sounding four trumpets in praise of the Lord. Contrary to the general impression gained from the Bible, certain allusions contained in it lead to the assumption that in the earlier periods of Jewish history angels played a more independent role in popular mythology than in the post-biblical period. Gimpdiggity Jun 18, The Sabbatian movement was followed by that of the Frankists who were disciples of Jacob Frank — who eventually became an apostate to Judaism by apparently converting to Catholicism. From this wealth of material the assumption may be drawn that the Angelology was not systematically organized. When Jacob trembles in approaching Isaac, two angels support him lest he fall.
Angels in Judaism
In one form or another, the belief in angels appears in the earliest stages of Jewish history, and continues to live in the spiritual world of the Jews and those professing the religions that sprang from Judaism; namely, Christianity and Mohammedanism. To admit of a comprehensive survey of the historical development of Angelology, the subject may best be treated according to three periods: 1 the Biblical, 2 the Talmudical and Midrashic, and 3 the Medieval. The Biblical Period: Denomination. Other appellations are , or "Sons of God," Gen.