ENTEROBIASIS OXIURIASIS PDF

Penyebab Pengertian Enterobiasis Penyakit enterobiasis merupakan salah satu jenis penyakit cacingan. Penyakit ini terjadi akibat infeksi cacing kremi. Pada umumnya penyakit ini lazim ditemukan pada anak-anak. Infeksi dapat terjadi karena tertelannya telur cacing kremi yang sudah dibuahi. Biasanya proses tersebut berlangsung melalui jari-jari yang kotor, makanan yang terkontaminasi, atau inhalasi udara yang terdapat telur cacing kremi.

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Another putative pinworm species, Enterobius gregorii, has been described and reported from humans in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

However, further morphologic and molecular evidence suggests E. The rat pinworm, Syphacia obvelata, has also very rarely been reported infecting humans. Infection occurs via self-inoculation transferring eggs to the mouth with hands that have scratched the perianal area or through exposure to eggs in the environment e.

Following ingestion of infective eggs, the larvae hatch in the small intestine and the adults establish themselves in the colon, usually in the cecum. The time interval from ingestion of infective eggs to oviposition by the adult females is about one month. At full maturity adult females measure 8 to 13 mm, and adult males 2 to 5 mm; the adult life span is about two months.

Gravid females migrate nocturnally outside the anus and oviposit while crawling on the skin of the perianal area. The larvae contained inside the eggs develop the eggs become infective in 4 to 6 hours under optimal conditions.

Rarely, eggs may become airborne and be inhaled and swallowed. Retroinfection, or the migration of newly hatched larvae from the anal skin back into the rectum, may occur but the frequency with which this happens is unknown. Hosts Oxyurid nematodes pinworms generally exhibit high host specificity. Humans are considered the only host for E. Geographic Distribution E. Clinical Presentation Enterobiasis is frequently asymptomatic. The most typical symptom is perianal pruritus, especially at night, which may lead to excoriations and bacterial superinfection.

Occasionally, invasion of the female genital tract with vulvovaginitis and pelvic or peritoneal granulomas can occur. Other symptoms include, teeth grinding, enuresia, insomnia, anorexia, irritability, and abdominal pain, which can mimic appendicitis.

Very rare instances of eosinophilic colitis associated with E. Enterobius vermicularis eggs. They are transparent, elongate to oval in shape, and slightly flattened on one side. They are usually partially embryonated when shed. Eggs will adhere to the tape and can be seen microscopically. Figure A: Eggs of E. Figure B: Eggs of E. Figure C: Egg of E. Figure D: Egg of E. Figure E: Eggs of E. Figure F: Eggs of E. Enterobius vermicularis adult worms.

Adult males of Enterobius vermicularis measure up to 2. Adult males have a blunt posterior end with a single spicule; females possess a long pointed tail. In both sexes, there are cephalic expansions. Figure A: Adult male of E. The worm measured 1.

Figure B: Close-up of the anterior end of the worm in Figure A. The esophagus, divided into muscular and bulbous portions and separated by a short, narrow isthmus, is visible in the image, as are the cephalic expansions.

Figure C: Close-up of the posterior end of the worm in Figure A. Note the blunt end. The spicule is withdrawn into the worm in this specimen. Figure D: Adult female E. Figure E: Male and female E. Figure F: Posterior end of an E. Figure A: Cross-section of a male E.

Notice the presence of the alae blue arrow , intestine red arrow and testis black arrow. Figure B: Cross-section of an adult female E. Note the presence of the alae blue arrow , intestine green arrow and ovaries black arrows. Figure C: Cross section of an adult female E. Note the prominent alae blue arrow and the presence of eggs yellow arrow. Image contributed by Sheboygan Memorial Hospital, Wisconsin. Figure D: Longitudinal section of an adult female E. Note the presence of many eggs.

Figure E: Egg of E. Figure F: Egg of E. Laboratory Diagnosis Microscopic identification of eggs collected in the perianal area is the method of choice for diagnosing enterobiasis. Eggs can also be found, but less frequently, in the stool, and occasionally are encountered in the urine or vaginal smears.

Adult worms are also diagnostic, when found in the perianal area, or during anorectal or vaginal examinations. In cases of ectopic infection, eggs may be seen in the urine or in cervicovaginal Papanicolaou smears. More on: Morphologic comparison with other intestinal parasites. Laboratory Safety Standard precautions apply for processing stool samples also tape test samples to avoid accidental ingestion of infectious eggs. Surfaces should be cleaned thoroughly as the outer coat of E.

Suggested Reading Peixoto, A. Eosinophilic ileocolitis due to Enterobius vermicularis infection: a rare cause of anemia.

International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 31 3 , pp. Hasegawa, H. Is Enterobius gregorii Hugot, Nematoda: Oxyuridae a distinct species? The Journal of parasitology 84, pp. Cook, G. Enterobius vermicularis infection. DPDx is an educational resource designed for health professionals and laboratory scientists. For an overview including prevention, control, and treatment visit www.

Page last reviewed: August 5,

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Welcher Erreger verursacht diese Infektion? Erreger der Enterobiose ist der Madenwurm Enterobius vermicularis. Weibchen wandern meistens nachts durch den Anus aus, um ihre Eier im Analbereich abzulegen. Pro Weibchen werden etwa Eier abgelegt.

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Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis Aarsmaden leven in onderste deel van de dikke darm en in de blinde darm. Ze leven ongeveer 8 weken, en leggen hun eitjes op de huid rond de anus. Buiten het lichaam kunnen de eitjes lang in leven blijven dagen , zodat ze via onder andere speelgoed, meubels, kleding, beddengoed, gebruiksvoorwerpen of handen weer een andere mens besmetten. Ze veroorzaken dan jeuk rond de anus en schaamlippen. Ze kunnen ook in de ontlasting worden aangetroffen.

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