Von den Sinnen im Allgemeinen 2. Von den Bildern im Auge 2. Vom Sehen Quellenverzeichnis 1. Studiengruppen in Kommunikation und Philosophie zu sein. Von ihnen ist der Gesichtssinn der umfassendste und edelste.
|Published (Last):||13 January 2008|
|PDF File Size:||13.14 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||6.82 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Dioptrique Journal of the History of Philosophy. Second Discourse On Refraction Inasmuch as we will later need to know the quantity of this refraction exactly, and since it can be understood easily enough by the comparison which I have just used, I believe that it is appropriate that I try here to explain it all at once, and that I first speak of reflection, in order to make the understanding of refraction so much the easier.
But Spinoza seems to have focused on what follows, which leaves off any concern for this factor:. Finally, I wilt discuss the question of perceptual representationalism in Descartes and some remaining related issues.
From which it follows that you will have occasion to judge that there is no need to assume that something material passes between the objects and our eyes to let us see colors and light, nor that there is anything in these objects which is similar to the ideas or the sensations that we have of them: Now, when many balls, coming from the same direction, encounter a body whose surface is completely smooth and uniform, they reflect equally and in the same order, such that, if this surface is to- tally flat, they maintain the same distance between each other after having encountered it, that they had before; and if it is curved inward or outward, they will approach or move away from each other, more or less, in the same order, depending on the ratio of this curvature.
Production of the real as an intensive magnitude starting at zero. Only intensities pass and circulate. Moreover, these rays must always be imagined to be completely straight, when they pass only through one transparent body that is everywhere uni- form; but when they encounter some other bodies, they are subject to being deflected by them, or weakened in the same way as the movement of a ball or a stone thrown in the air is weakened by those bodies that it encounters; for it is quite easy to believe that the action or inclination to move, which I have said light must be taken dsscartes be, descaftes follow in this the same laws as movement.
You can even easily decide the question among them concerning the origin of the action that causes the sense of sight. And certain cases can also be found where rays must curve, although they only pass through a single transparent body; in the same way as the movement of a ball curves, since it is deflected towards one direction by its weight, and towards another by the action with which it has been impelled, or for many other reasons. The justification for this interpretation almost always involves citing one or another of a host of more or less obscure and often inconsistent references to ideas, their content, causes, resemblances or the lack of same to thoughts obscureimages, pictures, engravings, etc.
Singleton… on Spinoza Doubt? The Johns Hopkins University Press. But perhaps you will be shocked while making these experiments, to find that the rays of light are more inclined in air than in water, diotprik the surfaces where they refract; and still more so in water than in glass, quite contrary to a ball, which inclines more in water than in air, and cannot pass through glass at all: Finally, consider that, if a moving ball encounters obliquely the surface of a liquid body through which it can pass more or less easily than through that which it is leaving, it is deflected and changes its course when it enters: It should be noticed descartfs each of descrtes above has expressed some hesitation over attributing to Descartes a clearly consistent or obvious doctrine of the relationship between ideas of sense and what or how they desdartes supposed to represent.
Thus all the parts of the subtle matter which are touched by the side of the sun which faces us, tend in a straight line towards our eyes at the very moment that they are opened, without impeding each other and even without being impeded by the heavier parts of the transparent bodies which are between the two: It is true that this sort of sensation is somewhat confused and obscure for those who are not used to it, but consider it for those who, being born blind, have used it all their lives, and you will find that they use it so perfectly and so exactly that it may almost be said that they see with their hands, or that 1 What about Kepler?
But it can also consist in many other things, and by these means can bring it about that, if these balls had earlier had only a simple rectilinear motion, they will lose descartess part of it and acquire instead a circular motion, which can 4 Descartes held that a perfect rebound would involve no change in speed: And Descartes brings up the point of their shape right away:.
This example will prevent you from thinking it strange that light can extend its rays in an instant from the sun to us; for you know that the action by which one diioptrik of the stick is moved must diioptrik pass in an instant to the other, and that light must pass in the same way between the Earth and the heavens, even though there would be more distance.
Only, care must be taken that this inclination be measured by the quantity of straight lines, like CB or AH, and EB or IG, and similar lines, compared one with the other, rather than being measured by the quantity of the angles, like ABH and GBI, nor still less by the quantity of angles similar to DBI, which are named the angles of refraction.
As to the size of images, it is to be noted that this depends solely on three things, namely, on the distance between the object and the place where the rays that it sends from its different points dwscartes the back of the eye intersect; next on the distance between this same place and the base of the eye; and finally, on the refraction of these rays trans. It is the 7th discourse that Spinoza and Jelles are discussing.
Remember me on this computer. Davis, and a referee of this journal for valuable criticisms contributing to the clarification and editing of the last draft of this article.
That is why we treat the BwO as the full egg before the extension of the organism and the organization of the organs, before the formation of the strata; as the intense egg defined by axes and vectors, gradients and thresholds, by dynamic tendencies involving energy transformation and kinematic movements involving group displacement, by migrations: Discourse on Method, Optics, Geometry, and Meteorology.
And, if these balls encounter an uneven surface, such as L or M fig. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. The BwO causes intensities to pass; it produces and distributes them in a spatium that is itself intensive, lacking extension.
Furthermore, it must be noted that the determination to move in one direction can, just as movement, and in general any sort of quantity, be divided into all the parts of which we imagine it is composed, and that we can easily imagine that the motion of the ball which moves from A towards B is composed of two others, one causing it to descend from the line AF towards the line CE, and the other at the same time causing it to go from the left AC to the right FE, such that these two combined direct it towards B along straight line AB.
Skip to main content. Never for me a hearth-mate may he have been, never equal in mind He who offers this. Log In Sign Up. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Finally, consider that the rays are also deflected dkoptrik the same way as was said of a ball when they encounter obliquely the surface of a transparent body through which they penetrate more or less easily than through descaetes body from which they came, and in these bodies this manner of being deflected is called refraction.
Blocked, he comes upon nothing so fated. This was important because he was using real-world objects in this case, a tennis ball to construct mathematical theory. Dioptrique — Wikipedia Email required Address never made public. Related Posts
Shakakasa Furthermore, it must be noted that the determination to move in one direction can, just as movement, and in general any sort of quantity, be divided into all the parts of which we imagine it is composed, and that we can easily imagine that the motion of the ball which moves from A towards B is composed of two others, one causing it to descend from the line AF towards the line CE, and the other at the same time causing it to go from the left AC to the right FE, such dioptri these two combined direct it towards B along straight line AB. Now, when many balls, coming from the same direction, encounter a body whose surface is completely smooth and uniform, they reflect equally and in the same order, such that, if this surface is to- tally flat, they maintain the same distance between each other after having encountered it, that they had before; and if it is curved inward or outward, they will approach or move away from each other, more or less, in the diopttik order, depending on the ratio of this curvature. Theories of Sescartes from Descartes to Newton. An issue Spinoza would like to make regarding the powers and functions of a telescope, it would seem. Nevertheless, we shall bear with an equal mind all that happens to us in contravention to the claims of our own advantage, so long as we are conscious, that we have done our duty, and that the power which we possess is not sufficient to enable us to protect ourselves completely; remembering that we are a part of universal nature, and that we follow her order. Help Center Find new research papers in: If we have a clear and distinct understanding of this, that part of our nature which is defined by intelligence, in other words the better part of ourselves, will assuredly acquiesce in what befalls us, and in such acquiescence will endeavour to persist. It is the 7th discourse that Spinoza and Jelles are discussing.
DESCARTES DIOPTRIK PDF